Type of research: Policy research
By : Putu Indah Rahmawati, Putu Agus Mayuni, Desak Made Oka
In Indonesia, the Republic of Indonesia Law No. 23, 2004 on the elimination of domestic
violence provides legal guarantees for women’s protection. At the national level there is a
National Action Plan for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, which provides for the
development of integrated crisis centers in hospitals, special service room in the regional
and central police stations, integrated services for women’s empowerment (P2TP2A) and
the dissemination of information and campaign against violence against women and
children. Yet the level of violence against women and children remains high. The Regional
Regulation No. 6, 2009 (relating to the Bali’s Regional Long Term Development Plan) clearly states that gender gaps persist in the economic, political, and legal sectors. Levels of sexual violence and trafficking against women and children continue to increase. This suggests that the protection of women and children remains low. In Buleleng Regency, Bali, the prevention and treatment of women victims of violence has been undertaken by
government by establishing P2TP2A since August 2007. However, there are still many
obstacles that prevent P2TP2A from functioning at an optimal level. Considering the strong patrilineal culture in Bali, law enforcement alone is not enough.
This research aims to
(1) determine the quality of services to women victims of violence;
(2) identify opportunities for service improvement
(3) identify strategies to optimize the role ofP2TP2A in protecting women from violence and
(4) identify strategies for P2TP2A to help
empower women in Bali, so that they are not oppressed by patrilineal culture in Bali.
This study used a qualitative research methodology. 16 women victims of violence were
interviewed, 7 were reported to the police and 9 never reported to the police. Interviews
with victims were conducted in residential locations of victims lying scattered in Buleleng
Regency. Determination of informants in the research conducted with snowball sampling
technique that begins with the determination of key informants. Interviews and
documentation was carried out in several offices: P2TP2A, family planning and women
empowerment agency, Police, Hospitals, Social Service Offices.
A focus group discussion was held with head of P2TP2A, head of women and children
protection unit of Buleleng Police, head of family planning and women empowerment
agency, representative of Buleleng public hospital, staff of social services, in order to
discuss the research finding and find out strategies for solution.
Key research findings:
There are weaknesses in the Regent Decree No. 563, 2007, especially in relation to the
organizational structure which is too big, make it the long and tiring bureaucracy.
Futhermore, inclusion of organizations involved in it, is without a clear name and position
so that it is difficult to do coordination in providing services for the victims;
Some women victims of violence said that services did not meet the Ministry of Women
Empowerment and Child Protection’s regulation on Minimum Service Standards;
Given the strong patrilineal culture in Bali, law enforcement alone is not enough.
Cooperation with religious organizations and indigenous organizations to push for the
understanding of regulations and services cannot be ignored;
The lack of sex disaggregated data and inadequate budget allocations severely affected the
ability of P2TP2A to work at an optimal level;
There are three main reasons why some women did not report violence committed against
them. First, Balinese culture which sees divorce as a burden on the women’s family
discourages women from reporting violence. Second, women who did not report cases of
violence mentioned that they did not know about P2TP2A. Finally the government’s ability
to provide guarantees of protection against violence made women feel that there was no
need to report their cases, because the government will not be able to provide a better life
There are no safe houses, therefore police officers often asked the victim to stay at home
as they could not stay in the police station. This increased women’s vulnerability.
There has been no special staff to handle cases of violence against women. Buleleng district
hospital staff have not been trained to provide special services for victims of violence. Some
staff have attended an information sessions on domestic violence, gender awareness and
trafficking, but have never received training on procedures on cases treatment or minimum service standard.
The Buleleng district hospital should explore the possibility of providing free hospital
service to women victims of violence.
There is a need to align data and information collected by the Police and the
Regional Hospital of Buleleng.
Social Affair Agency and Women Empowerment Agency need to jointly lobby for
government budget allocation to enable provision of rehabilitation services for victims of domestic violence in accordance with Law No. 23, 2004.
Head of District’s Decree No. 563 of 2007 on the organizational structure of P2TP2A
needs revision, the name of members must be clearly listed, thus reducing the
number of personnel, select new members who more active and more responsive to
coordination. That Decree needs to be revised every year following frequent rotation
of staff within the agencies which manage P2TP2A.
There is a need to supervise the implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of
Women Empowerment and Child Protection of the Republic of Indonesia number 01
in 2010 at the provincial and district level.
The center for women’s studies in Ganesha Education University should collaborate
with P2TP2A to lobby the Department of Education a budget to hold seminars in
schools on violence against women.
The Center for Women’s Studies should also assist P2TP2A in preparing proposal to hold
training about how to provide better services to the victims. The proposal could be
proposed to the national and international agencies for funding.